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Thursday, June 28, 2012

mtDNA of Kurds V

 Just an update (new entries are highlighted in yellow):

1x C4b (Alevi Kurmanji)
1x G2a (Sorani)
1x H5a1 (Sorani)
1x H13a2 (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim)
1x H14 (Yezidi)
1x H15a1 (Sorani; mtDNA fully sequenced here and here)
1x H15b (Sorani)
1x HV (Sorani)
1x HV (Kurmanji from Zakho)
1x I5a (Zaza from Dersim)
1x J1b (Sorani)
1x J1c (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim)
1x J2a1a  (Kurd from Turkey)
1x N1b1 (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim)
1x U1a1 (Zaza)
1x U1a1 (Sorani)
1x U5a1 (Kurmanji from Dohuk)
1x U8b (Feyli)

Some information about the latest entries:

mtDNA G2a:
The mtDNA haplogroup G2a is not known in populations from the Middle East but in Ainu from Japan and in Northeastern Siberia close to Bering Strait. There is only one reported case of a fully sequenced mtDNA G2a from the Caucasus (Georgian). However, this Georgian individual is G2a1b (not the same subbranch). Another curiosity is that this Kurdish individual has the 16172C mutation. 16172C was only described once in a Chinese individual. Strange enough, the Chinese individual does not belong to G2a but to the neighbor haplogroup G2b (to be precise G2b1a). My guess is that
a) it is a very, very rare coincidence to have the same mutation as two indepedent events,
b) 23andme is not testing for G2b mutations, or
c) the mtDNA G haplogroup tree needs to be updated.
Behar et al. 2012 estimated an age of 26788 ± 4618 years for G2.
Behar et al. 2012 estimated an age of 17146 ± 5270 years for G2a.
Here is a map of 23andme users with mtDNA G2a created by Evon_Evon who has a general interest in this mtDNA haplogroup.

mtDNA I5a:
The mtDNA Haplogroup I is found in Europe, Middle East and South Asia. Quintana-Murci et al., 2004, analyzed the mtDNA of 20 Kurds from Iran, and found one individual with the mtDNA I (1/20=5.0%). Several cases of I5a (Germany, Italy, Romania, Russia, USA) are described in the FTDNA mtDNA Haplogroup I Project.
Behar et al. 2012 estimated an age of 15116 ± 4128 years for I5a. Fully sequenced I5a mtDNA is available from Yemen, Dubai, and Turkey (GenBank). The individual from Turkey is the closest match for the Zaza (both are lacking the "Arabian mutations "G3705A","T5096C", and "G5773A"). 

mtDNA U5a1:
The mtDNA Haplogroup U5a1 is quiet common in Europe but it is also present in other parts of Eurasia being one of the most common and best described mtDNA haplogroups. Full mtDNA sepuences of the root of U5a1 are available from England, Spain, Caucasus, and Czech Republic at GenBank. The mtDNA of famous Cheddar Man from England (who lived 9,000 years ago) turned out be U5.

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