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Thursday, July 18, 2013

mtDNA Haplogroup of Kurds, Persians, and Tajiks

Today, I want to present the mtDNA data published in the paper "Phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in northern Asian populations" by Derenko et al., in 2007, which includes of 25 Kurds from Kurdistan-Iran, 82 Persians, and 44 Tajiks. In a more recent paper (Malyarchuk et al., 2013) the Y-chromosomes of these 25 Kurdish individuals were described.

From the paper:


mtDNA Haplogroup Kurds (n=25) Persians (n=82) Tajiks (n=44)
A2


A4
2.4% 2.3%
A5


A8


B4
4.9%
B5
1.2%
C*

9.1%
C1


C4
1.2% 2.3%
C5


D2


D3


D4 12.0% 1.2% 4.5%
D5
1.2% 2.3%
F1


F2a


G*


G1


G2a
1.2% 2.3%
G3

2.3%
M*
7.3% 2.3%
M3a
2.4%
M7


M8a2


M9a


M10

2.3%
M11


M13a


Y

2.3%
Z

2.3%
N9a


R*


R9


R11


L2a
1.2%
H 12.0% 26.0% 25.0%
HV 8.0% 3.7%
HV0a

2.3%
V


R0a
2.4%
R2
1.2%
J1 12.0% 3.7% 2.3%
J2 8.0% 1.2% 2.3%
T* 4.0% 4.9%
T1 8.0% 8.5% 2.3%
N1
1.2% 2.3%
I
3.7% 2.3%
W
2.4% 4.5%
N2
1.2%
U1 12.0% 1.2%
U2
1.2% 2.3%
U3
2.4% 2.3%
U4

6.8%
U5
4.9%
U7a 16.0% 1.2% 4.5%
U8 4.0% 1.2%
K
3.7% 6.8%
X2e 4.0%



Most of the haplogroups were determined by RLFP screening using various restriction enzymes. Additionally, the HVRI and HVRII were sequenced.
I also took a closer look at the raw data of the 25 Kurds and tried to give a more precise annotation of the haplogroups.

1xD4 T16090C/T, T16223C, T16362C, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C
2xD4 T16223C, T16362C, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C
1xH T16209C, 44.1C, T57C, A93G, A263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C
1xH G16129A, C16248T, T195C, A263G, 315.1C
1xH CRS, A263G, 315.1C
1xHV C16174T, C41T, A214G, A263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C
1xHV1a1 C16067T, C16355T, C150T, A263G, 315.1C
1xJ1b1b1 T10410A, C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16261T, C16290T, A73G, A263G, C271T, C295T, 309.1C, 315.1C
2xJ1b1b1 T10410A, C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16261T, A73G, A263G, C295T, 309.1C, 315.1C
1xJ2a1a1 C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, A16182C, A16183C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16231C, C16261T, A73G, C150T, C152T, T195C, C198T, A215G, C295T, 315.1C, T319C
1xJ2d C16069T, T16126C, C16193T, A73G, C152T, A263G, C295T, 315.1C
1xT* T16126C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16249C, C16294T, T16304C, A73G, T146C, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C
1xT1a1'3 T16126C, A16163G, C16186T, T16189C, C16294T, A73G, T152C, T195C, A263G, 315.1C
1xT1b T16126C, A16163G, T16189C, T16243C, C16294T, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C
1xU1a1 G16129A, A16183C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16224C, T16249C, T16288C, C16295T, A73G, C150T, T195C, A263G, C285T, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C, A385G
1xU1a1 A16183-, 16193.1C, C16193T.2C, T16249C, T72C, A73G, T195C, A263G, C285T, 309.1C, 315.1C, A385G
1xU1a'c  A16182C, A16183C, T16189C, T16249C, A73G, T146C, A263G, C285T, 309.1C (similar to HM852844(Iranian 9) Schoenberg)
1xU7a4 T16126C, C16148T, A16309G, A16318T, A73G, T146C, C150T, C152T, T195C, A263G, 315.1C
1xU7a4 T16126C, C16148T, A16318C, A73G, T146C, C151T, C152T, T195C, A263G, 315.1C
1xU7a4 T16126C, C16148T, A16318T, A73G, T146C, C151T, C152T, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C
1xU7a'5 G16129A, A16318T, A73G, C151T, C152T, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C
1xU8b1a1 A16066G, G16129A, A16183C, T16189C, C16234T, A73G, G94A, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C
1xX2e T16124C, A16182C, A16183C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16223C, C16278T, T16325C, A73G, A153G, T195C, A263G, 308.1A, 309.1C, 315.1C, C338T

Since the paper was about Northern Asia I also looked at specific Kurdish mtDNA variants that are shared with others. These shared variants -if very specific, e.g. with rare mutations- can indicate migration.
D4 T16223C, T16362C, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C could be also found in 1 Korean (1/103), 4 Buryats (4/295).
H CRS, A263G, 315.1C could be also found in 1 Kalmyk (1/110), 1 Buryat (1/295), and 3 Telenghits (3/71).
J1b1b1 T10410A, C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16261T, C16290T, A73G, A263G, C271T, C295T, 309.1C, 315.1C could be also found in 2 Telenghits (2/71).
J1b1b1 T10410A, C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16261T, A73G, A263G, C295T, 309.1C, 315.1C could be also found in 1 Persian (1/82).
1xT1a1'3 T16126C, A16163G, C16186T, T16189C, C16294T, A73G, T152C, T195C, A263G, 315.1C could be also found in 1 Chukchi (1/15).

Since haplogroup J is known to be from the Middle East it is interesting to note the presence of the specific J1b1b1 haplogroup in 2 Telenghits that is also present in one Kurd. Additionally, 3 Telenghits carry a T1 variant (haplogroup T also originated in the Middle East) that is present in one Persian, and one Chukni has the T1a1'3 haplogroup that is also present in one Kurd. All of this indicates an ancient migration from Kurdistan-Iran or nearby to Siberia.

Edit:
Regarding the J1b1b1 haplpogroup in Siberia I also looked into fully sequenced people:
EF397558(Buryat) Derenko J1b1b1 A73G A263G C271T C295T 315.1C C462T T489C C522- A523- A750G A1438G A2706G G3010A T4216C A4769G G5460A C7028T T7270C G8269A A8860G T10245C A10398G T10410A A11251G G11719A A12612G G13708A T13879C C14766T A15326G C15452A C16069T T16126C G16145A C16261T T16311C T16519C
EF397562(Altaian-Kizhi) Derenko J1b1b1 A73G A263G C271T C295T 309.1C 315.1C C462T T489C C522- A523- A750G A1438G A2706G A2707C G3010A T4216C A4769G G5460A A5592G C7028T G8269A A8860G A10398G T10410A A11251G G11719A A11893G A12612G G13708A T13879C C14766T A15326G C15452A C16069T T16126C G16145A C16261T C16290T T16519C
EF556155 Behar2008 J1b1b1 A73G C150T A263G C271T C295T 309.1C 315.1C C462T T489C C522- A523- A750G A1438G A2706G A2707C G3010A T4216C T4561C A4769G G5460A C7028T G8269A A8860G A10398G T10410A A10682G A11251G G11719A A12612G G13708A T13879C C14766T A15326G C15452A C16069T G16145A C16261T C16290T T16519C
FJ624455 FTDNA J1b1b1 9 A73G A263G C271T C295T 315.1C C462T T489C C522- A523- A750G A1438G A2706G G3010A T4216C A4769G G5460A C7028T T7270C G8269A A8860G T10245C A10398G T10410A A11251G G11719A A12612G G13708A T13879C C14766T A15326G C15452A C16069T T16126C G16145A C16261T T16311C T16519C
JF929909(Armenian) FTDNA J1b1b1 A73G T146C A263G C271T C295T 309.1C 315.1C C462T T489C C522- A523- A547G A750G A1438G A2706G G3010A T4216C A4769G G5460A C7028T G8269A A8860G G9055A A10398G T10410A A11251G G11719A A12612G G13708A T13879C C14766T A15326G C15452A C16069T T16126C G16145A C16261T T16519C
JF939049(Armenian) FTDNA J1b1b1 A73G A263G C295T 309.1C 315.1C C462T T489C C522- A523- A750G A1438G A2706G G3010A T4216C A4769G G5460A A5582G C7028T G8269A A8860G T9530C A10398G T10410A A11251G G11719A C12389T A12612G G13708A T13879C C14766T A15326G C15452A C16069T T16126C G16145A C16261T T16519C

EF397558(Buryat) Derenko is identical to FJ624455 FTDNA. FJ624455 is FTDNA 65964 Merante. This individual is in the Sephardic Heritage DNA Project. Considering that the mtDNAs from Buryat and Sephardi Jews are identical the migration must be fairly recent, so these Mideast signals in Siberia could be explained with recent Jewish migration from the Middle East to Siberia.

5 comments:

  1. On first sight the high frequencies of some "rare" haplogroups (D4 and U1 especially) are a bit perplexing. It would seem like they belong to some very specific community and I wouldn't think these findings would be extensible to all Kurdistan (or even Eastern Kurdistan in general). But you tell me.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Haplogroup D4 was only found in Iranian Kurds, so it seems to be a characteristic of the East but U1 was found in all parts of Kurdistan. For more details, see:
    http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2013/07/kurdish-mtdna-data-x.html

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I saw it already, thanks. The whole picture fits much better within my expectations.

      U1 is found but it's different to be found at 4.5% than 12%. Still, looking around, there are some scattered samples in West and South Asia with comparable or even higher figures (notably 50% in the Kubachi of Daghestan). So maybe it's a bit less rare than I thought.

      Delete
  3. Our diffrences with Persians comes from Hurrians, I think. Some historian s say that Kurdish is a creole language .

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