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Monday, March 31, 2014

Underhill et al., 2014

Today, I just want to show the frequencies of the R1a subbranches in the tested regions of the latest Underhill publication. The Middle East shows the highest diversity when it comes to SNPs. The authors wrote that "phylogeographic data lead us to conclude that the initial episodes of R1a-M420 diversification occurred in the vicinity of Iran and Eastern Turkey", which is basically Kurdistan and Iran.

Middle East:
Caucasus:
Central Asia/Southern Siberia:

South Asia:

Eastern Europe:

Western/Northern Europe:

Central/Southern Europe:

Roma:

Jews:


Saturday, February 15, 2014

Autosomal DNA from Iraq

Even today, Iraq is a blind spot in terms of genetic studies despite its old and rich history. In order to partly fill this gap I want to present autosomal DNA data from Iraqi individuals using Dodecad K12b.

2 Assyrians
2 Mandaeans
10 Jews
1 Arab from South Iraq
2 Arabs from Baghdad
1 Yezidi Kurd
2 Kurmanji Kurd
9 Sorani Kurds
3 Feyli Kurds

The three most obvious observations: 
1. The South Iraqi is an outlier in the data set suggesting very recent migration into Iraq. The South Iraqi individual clusters with Bedouins. More than 10% of his ancestry is African.
2. Kurds have more of the Northern European component (5-8%), however, the Arab Baghdadi2 and Assyrian2 also shows some of it (~2%) suggesting some admixture with Kurds or other Iranians.
3. The South Asian component can be found in Arabs (2.9%±1.5%) and Kurds (3.1%±1.5%) but is rare in other Iraqi minorities.

Note: Blogger Mfa from corduene.blogspot.com helped me setting up the interactive chart below.



Edit 03/03/2014:

The K12b values of Saudis and Bedouins (from Dodecad K12b):

Saturday, February 8, 2014

Kurdish mtDNA data XI

Just an update (N=186):




 
1x B4b1a (Kurd from Turkey) 
1x C (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x C4b (=C4b+A248G, A14566G, T16519C, A249A (not deleted)) (Alevi Kurmanji)
2x D (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x D4 T16090C/T, T16223C, T16362C, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
2x D4 T16223C, T16362C, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007
1x G2a (=G2a+T16172C) (Sorani)
8x H (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x H CRS (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
6x H (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
2x H with T16311C  (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x H T16209C, 44.1C, T57C, A93G, A263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x H
G16129A, C16248T, T195C, A263G, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x H
CRS, A263G, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007) 
1x H with C16218T (=H1ag1a or H1aq1 or H20) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x H with C16192R, C16261T (similar to: JN415470(Italy-LHON) Achilli Haplogroup H 19-AUG-2012 (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x H5'36 (Kurd from Turkey)
1x H5  16051G, 16255A, 16304C, 16319A, 16327T, 263G, 315.1C, 456T (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)   
1x H5a1 (H5a1+T16304G, A3397G, G5471A) (G5471A usually in H5b) (Sorani)
1x H13a2b2 (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim)
1x H13c1 (H13c1+T3398C, T10463C, T15394C) (Alevi Kurmanji from Sivas and Erzincan)
1x H14a with T16311C, C16256T, T16352C (=H14a +T16311C ) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x H14b T3197C (=H14b+C4086T, A16265T) (Yezidi) 
1x H15a1 (=H15a1+309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C, A15316G) (Sorani; mtDNA fully sequenced here and here)
1x H15b (Sorani)
1x H15b T16086C (close to EU600353(Druze) Shlush)(Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x H20 (3/4 Zaza from Bingol, 1/4 (paternal grandmother) Kurmanji from Bitlis)
5x HV (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x HV* CRS (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x HV* C16174T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x HV C16174T, C41T, A214G, A263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x HV A73G, T391C, G16153A (Kurmanji from Zakho)
1x HV1 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x HV1a1 C16067T, C16355T, C150T, A263G, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x HV1a1 C16067T, C16355T (=HV1a1) (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x HV1b2 (HV1b2+T3398C G13368A, T16519C)(Yezidi Kurd from Georgia)
1x HV2 C16168T, T16189C, T16217C, C16287T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x HV2a1 (T246C, C16214T, A16335G (=HV2a1) additional G13708A (Kurmanji Sunni from Sirnak/Hasankeyf/Nisebin/Mardin/Kamishli)
1x HV14 (T480C, G4655A, T15115C =HV14) (Kurmanji from Diyarbakir (Amed)/Turkey)
1x HV14 T16311C, G4655A, T15115C (Sorani)
1x I (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x I with G16129A, C16223T (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
 1x I1a G16129A, C16168T, T16172C, 16173, C16223T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x I1a1d with G16129A, C16223T, T16172C, T16189C, C16083T, C16355T (=I1a1d+C16083T, C16355T) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x I5a pre-I5a3  because G5231A, A15052G = I5a3 but still C150C, T6278T = I5a; additional   C16301T (Zaza from Dersim)
1x I5a (Zaza from Baltas/Varto, Turkey)
1x J* (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
2x J1b (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x J1b C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16222T, A16235G, C16261T, T16311C (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x J1b1b1 T10410A, C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16261T, C16290T, A73G, A263G, C271T, C295T, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
2x J1b1b1 T10410A, C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16261T, A73G, A263G, C295T, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
2x J1b1b1 C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16261T, T16519C, A73G, A263G, C295T, 309.1C    315.1C, C462T, T489C, 523DEL, 524DEL   (very close to JF939049(Armenian)) (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
3x J1b2 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x J1b3 T1822C, A8460G, T16311C  (=J1b3+T1822C+T16311C) (Sorani)
1x J1b3b A73G, A263G, C295T, T489C, A750G, A1438G, A2706G, G3010A, T4216C, A4769G, C7028T, G8269A, A8460G, A8860G, A10398G, A11251G, G11719A, A12612G, G13708A, C14766T, A15326G, C15452A, T15530C, C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16222T, A16235G, C16261T (1/2 Alevi Kurmanji paternally, 1/2 Sunni Kurmanji maternally from Bingol, Kighi, Turkey)
1x J1b4 C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, C16222T, C16261T C16278T, C16287T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x J1c (=J1c+G185T, 4812A, C16290T, T16519C) (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim)
1x J1c2m (old J1c2a)  C16069T, T16126C, 16148T, A73G, 185A, 228A, A263G, C295T, 315.1C, C462T, T489C, 523DEL, 524DEL  (close to JQ797801 from Romania and  JQ797802 from West-Siberia (Khanty))(Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)  
1x J1d (=J1d+A15218G, T16519C) (Feyli, originally from Iran)
1x J1d (Kurd from Iraq)
1x J1d3b (=J1d3b+10742G, T11353C, 12425G, T16519C (Kurmanji from Adıyaman and Gaziantep; now living in Konya area)
1x J2a1a1 C16069T, T16126C, G16145A, A16182C, A16183C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16231C, C16261T, A73G, C150T, C152T, T195C, C198T, A215G, C295T, 315.1C, T319C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007
1x J2a1a1 (=J2a1a1+A10044G, G11914A, C16264T)  (Kurd from Turkey)
3x J2b (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x J2b1 (Kurd from Iraq/Iran)
1x J2d C16069T, T16126C, C16193T, A73G, C152T, A263G, C295T, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x JT with T16126C, C16067T, T16311C (=JT) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x K (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x K1a9 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x K1a T16093C, T16224C, T16311C (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x K 16129, T16224C, T16311C (= K1a11 or K2b2) (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x K with T16224C, T16311C (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
2x K with T16224C, T16311C, T16093C, C16260T (=K1a1+C16260T, or K1a17a+T16093C)(Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x K with T16224C, T16311C, A16240G (=K+A16240G) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x K with T16224C, T16311C, A16272G (=K+A16272G) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x L3e5 16037G, A16041G, C16223T, A73G, C150T, A263G, 315.1C, T398C, 523DEL, 524DEL
(Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
1x M/C (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x M1a1 G16129A, 16182C, 16183C, T16189C, C16223T, T16249C, T16311C, T16359C, C16360T, T16519C, A73G, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C, T489C (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
5x N (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x N1b (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x N1b1 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x N1b1 (=N1b1+C16176C, C1703A, C3921A, G7337A, T16519C) (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim)
1x N1b1 with C16223T, G16145A, C16176G (=N1b1) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x N2a with C16223T, T16086C, G16153A, G16319A (=N2a+T16086C) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x R (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
2x R0 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x R0 16519C, 16524C, A263G, 315.1C (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
1x R0 16368C, 16519C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)   
1x R2 with C16071T, G16145A, C16234 (=R2 +G16145A+C16234) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x T* T16126C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16249C, C16294T, T16304C, A73G, T146C, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x T1a1'3 T16126C, A16163G, C16186T, T16189C, C16294T, A73G, T152C, T195C, A263G, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
4x T1 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x T1 (=T1a2b+C12633T, G5460A, G11914A, T16311C, (T16519C))(Feyli)
1x T1 (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim/Turkey)
1x T1a7 T16126C, A16163G, C16186T, T16189C, G16274A, C16294T, T16519C, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, A512G  (close to EU935435(Egypt) Kujanova and JQ798027 (Israel))(Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
1x T1b T16126C, A16163G, T16189C, T16243C, C16294T, A73G, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007) 
1x T1b T16126C, A16163G, T16189C, T16243C, A16247G, C16294T, T16519C, A73G, 152C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, 524.1A, 524.2C (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
3x T2 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x T2a1b2b with T16126C, C16294T, C16296T, C16256T, A16317G (=T2a1b2b +A16317G) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x T2b (Kurd from Turkey)
1x U1a'c  A16182C, A16183C, T16189C, T16249C, A73G, T146C, A263G, C285T, 309.1C (similar to HM852844(Iranian 9) Schoenberg) (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U1a'c with A16182C, A16183C, T16189C, T16249C (=U1a'c) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x U1a (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x U1a1 A14070A, T16163C (Zaza)
1x U1a1 G16129A, A16183C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16224C, T16249C, T16288C, C16295T, A73G, C150T, T195C, A263G, C285T, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C, A385G (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U1a1 A16183-, 16193.1C, C16193T.2C, T16249C, T72C, A73G, T195C, A263G, C285T, 309.1C, 315.1C, A385G (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U1a1a (Sorani) with A11467G,  A12308G,  G12372A, C285T,  T12879C,  A13104G, A14070G, G15148A, A15954C, T16249C, C2218T, G14364A, T16189C, G4991A, G6026A, T7581C, A385G, 3158.1T, G3591A, A13422G, G9575A, C2836T, G4659A, 573.1C, 573.2C, A10283G, (309.1C), (315.1C), (523-), (524-), (16182C), (16183C), (16519C) (=U1a1a; shares C2836T, G4659A mutation with Indian samples HM156682(India) Govindaraj) (fully sequenced here and here)
1x U1b C16111T, 16214A, T16249C, G16319A, C16327T, T16519C, A73G, T146C, T152C, A263G, C285T, 315.1C, 572T (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
1x U2 (Alevi with Zaza ancestry)
1x U2e1a with A16051G, T152C, A508G, A3720G, A5390G, T5426C, C6045T, T6152C, A10876, T13020C, T13734C, A15907G, G16129C, T16362C, C340T, C11197T, T11732C, G7337A, A15218G, T16311C, T16519C (Sorani from Sulaymaniyah/Iraq)
1x U3 with A16343G (=U3) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x U3a (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x U3a with C150T, A14139G,  T15454C, A2294G,  T4703C,  G9266A, T6518A (flip!),  A10506G,  C13934T,  G16390A C2766A, 10790C, G16129A, 16257T, T16519C (Sorani from Sulaymaniyah/Iraq); (similar to HM852895(Georgian45) Schoenberg also with C2766A)
1x U3b with (U3b+G3591A, C15946T, A16203G, T16311C, T16356C, C4640T (flip!) (Kurmanji Sunni from Hakkari/Mardin) 
1x U3c with A16343G, C16193T, T16249C (=U3c) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x U3c C16193T, T16249C, A16343G, G16526A, A73G, C150T, A263G, 315.1C  (close to HM852797(Azeri34) and HM852803(Azeri42) Schoenberg)(Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)   
1x U4 T16356C, T16519C, A73G, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, G499A, 524.1A, 524.2C
(Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
1x U5 T16093C, T16189C, C16270T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x U5a1 (Kurmanji from Dohuk)
1x U5a1a (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x U5a1a1 (maternally Kurdish from Ardalan)
4x U7 (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x U7 (Zaza from Turkey)
1x U7 C16069T, A16227G, C16278T, A16318C, T16359C (very close to HM852853(Turk 187) Schoenberg) (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x U7 C16192T, A16309G, A16318T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x U7 T16243C, A16309G, A16318T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x U7 A16309G, A16318T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x U7 A16309G, A16318T (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x U7a A16309G, A16318T, T16519C, A73G, C151T, T152C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523DEL, 524DEL (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
1x U7a4 T16126C, C16148T, A16309G, A16318T, A73G, T146C, C150T, C152T, T195C, A263G, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U7a4 T16126C, C16148T, A16318C, A73G, T146C, C151T, C152T, T195C, A263G, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U7a4 T16126C, C16148T, A16318T, A73G, T146C, C151T, C152T, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U7a'5 G16129A, A16318T, A73G, C151T, C152T, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U8b1a1 A16066G, G16129A, A16183C, T16189C, C16234T, A73G, G94A, T195C, A263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)
1x U8b1a1 A16066G, G16129A, C16169T, A16183C, T16189C, C16234T, T16311C (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x U8b C16111T, T16172C, A16183C, T16189C, T16311C (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x U8b (Feyli)
1x U8b (Zaza from Sivas, originally from Dersim)
1x W (Kurds from Saqqez, Kurdistan-Iran; Farjadian et al., 2011)
1x W C16223T, C16292T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x W3 G16153A, C16223T, C16292T, C16294T, T16519C, A73G, T152C, A189G, C194T, T195C, T199C, T204C, G207A, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C (Kurds from Iraq; Al-Zahery et al., 2012)
1x W4a C16223T, C16292T, C16286T (Kurds from Iran; Quintana-Murci et al., 2004)
1x W6 with C16292T, C16192T, C16223T,  T16324C (=W6) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x W6c with A73G, A189G, C194T, T195C, T204C, G207A, A263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, C16211T, C16223T, C16292T, T16325C, T16519C (N91920     Kurdish Gule, ≈1850, Ahlat/Kurdistan-Turkey)
1x X with T16189C, C16278T, C16186T (=X+C16186T) (Kurds from Georgia; Comas et al., 2000)
1x X2e T16124C, A16182C, A16183C, T16189C, 16193.1C, T16223C, C16278T, T16325C, A73G, A153G, T195C, A263G, 308.1A, 309.1C, 315.1C, C338T (Kurds from Iran; Derenko et al., 2007)

Related post:
mtDNA of Kurds Part I
mtDNA of Kurds Part II
mtDNA of Kurds Part III
mtDNA of Kurds Part IV
mtDNA of Kurds V
Kurdish mtDNA data VI 
Kurdish mtDNA data VII
Kurdish mtDNA data VIII 
Kurdish mtDNA data IX
Kurdish mtDNA data X 

Sunday, December 29, 2013

Globe13 Calculator for genetic distance, biogeographical ancestry, and Oracle

Today, I am presenting a quite big Excel file (93 MB) that I generated to calculate genetic distances, biogeographical ancestry, and Oracle.
The file can be found in KurdishDNA.blogspot.com Data Sink.
Here is the direct link.

How to use it:
1. Open file in Excel; enable Macro.
2. Go to sheet "Paste here!" and add your Globe13 component values in cells B2 - N2.
3. Go to "Tools", then "Macro", then run Macro "Sort".
4. You are done. The results appear on sheet "Paste here!". Based on your computer the calculations can take up to one minute.

Example: results for Kurd_D

1. Top100 matches for Kurd_D (all samples)
 2. Top100 matches for Kurd_D (reference populations only)
3. Oracle TOP500 combinations for Kurd_D (reference populations only)
4. OracleTOP500 combinations for Kurd_D (all samples)
5. Predicted location for biogeographical ancestry of Kurd_D

The calculated latitude and longitude numbers can be directly pasted into maps.google.com


Previously, I used this Excel file to generate some phylogenetic trees and a map.


Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Ashkenazi-Levite Jews and their Iranian origin Part II

Previously, I mentioned that I believe that the term "Ashkenazi" is ultimately derived from the Iranian name "Ashkan", the founder of the Parthian Empire (still called 'Ashkanian' (اشکانیان) Empire in Iranian languages).

I already showed that the Ashkenazi Jews share a lot genetic markers with Kurds:
  • mtDNA HV1b2 was found within Ashkenazi Jews and one Yezidi Kurd;
  • the Y-haplogroup of the Kurd N91920 is J1c3 and he shares the SNP L817+ with the J1c3* Jewish Cluster A. Thus, the closest and the only Middle Eastern relative of the J1c3* Jewish Cluster A is a  Kurdish individual.    
  • The R1a1a Ashkenazi-Levite cluster shows similarities to the STR data of a Kurdish individual.

A new publication in Nature comes to the same conclusions about the R1a-M582 Ashkenazi-Levite cluster, it is not East European, it is not Khazarian, it is Iranian.

From the paper:

Phylogenetic applications of whole Y-chromosome sequences and the Near Eastern origin of Ashkenazi Levites

...
Considering the historical records of Ashkenazi Jews, three potential geographic sources should be considered: the Near East, which was the geographic location for the ancient Hebrews; Europe, which was the residence of the Ashkenazi Jewish Diaspora and the region in which they evolved for nearly two millennia; and the region overlapping with the no longer extant mid-11th Century Khazarian Khaganate, whose ruling class has been suggested to have converted to Judaism18. Our data render the latter source highly unlikely since the Khazarian Khaganate overlapped with the Northern Pontic-Caspian steppe and the North Caucasus region, in which just one Nogay sample carried the R1a-M582 haplogroup (Table 1). Furthermore, the Nogays, formerly a powerful Kipchak Turkic-speaking nomadic confederation, are relatively recent inhabitants of the Caucasus, and the STR haplotype of the sole R1a-M582 Nogay sample lies outside of the Levite cluster. Had the Caucasus region been the source for the Ashkenazi modal lineage, we likely would have found R1a-M582 Y-chromosomes in some of its 20 local populations examined in our sample of more than 2,000 Y-chromosomes (Table 1). As previously suggested, the European and particularly, the Eastern European paternal gene pool was seen as a natural and highly plausible source for the Ashkenazi Levite lineage as both the Ashkenazi community and haplogroup R1a frequencies peak in this region. But surprisingly, haplogroup R1a-M582 was not detected in non-Jewish Eastern European samples and was found only in singleton samples in various Central and Western European populations (Table 1).
...
Near Eastern populations are the only populations in which haplogroup R1a-M582 was found at significant frequencies (Table 1). Moreover, the representative samples displayed substantial diversity even within this geographic region (Fig. 1b). Higher frequencies and diversities often suggest lineage autochthony. Hence, we can assess whether or not the origin of haplogroup R1a-M582 is in present-day Iran and eastern Anatolia, or rather the broader region of the Near East. Our data demonstrate the occurrence of R1a-M582 among different Iranian populations, among Kurds from Cilician Anatolia and Kazakhstan, and among Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews. These observations, and the STR network delineating an internal R1a-M582 structure, might attest to a broad Near Eastern distribution range of this minor haplogroup that survived to the present day at low frequencies among Iranian Kerman, Iranian Azeri, Kurds and Jews. Haplogroup R1a-M582 was not detected in samples from Iraq or among Bedouins, Druze and Palestinians sampled in Israel.

One thing the paper did not address well is to highlight the frequency of R1a-M582 within R1a1 individuals of each population. From all tested non-Jewish population Kurds have the highest frequency of R1a-M582 within R1a1 individuals. Caution, the number of tested R1a individuals is pretty low, so percentages might be off.

Here is the ranking based on the data of the publication:


100% (2/2) Jews from Israel (Non-Ashkenazi)
100% (2/2) Jews from Algeria (Non-Ashkenazi)
100% (2/2) Jews from Slovenia (Non-Ashkenazi)
92% (80/87) Ashkenazi Jews* 
73% (90/123) Jews
67% (6/9) Jews from Spanish Exile (Non-Ashkenazi)
67% (2/3) Jews from Bulgaria (Non-Ashkenazi)
50% (2/4) Jews from Turkey (Non-Ashkenazi)
43% (3/7) Kurds (Turkey and Kazakhstan)
40% (2/5) Jews from North Africa (Non-Ashkenazi)
29% (2/7) Jews from Near East (Non-Ashkenazi)
28% (10/36) Non-Ashkenazi Jews 
19% (9/48) Iran (Azeri)
13% (3/24) Iran (Kerman)
10% (2/21) Iran
9% (1/11) Nogays 
6% (18/303) Near East
6% (1/17) Iran
5% (1/21) Hungary
2% (1/42) Germany 
1% (1/106) Western/Northern Europe 
1% (1/119) Slovakia 
1% (22/2711) Non-Jewish populations 




Sunday, October 27, 2013

Kurdish Y-DNA Part X

Just an update of Kurdish Y haplogroups (N=529):

Used publications:
Nebel et al., 2001
Wells et al., 2001
Stenersen et al., 2004
Nasidze et al., 2005
Gokcumen et al., 2011
Grugni et al., 2012
Malyarchuk et al., 2013
Cristofaro et al., 2013

Haplogroup C
1x C-RPS4Y (Iranian Kurds in Malyarchuk et al., 2013)
1x C-RPS4Y (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
1x C-RPS4Y (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)


Haplogroup E
7x E a.k.a. hg21 (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)
3x E-YAP (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
10x E-YAP (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005) 
3x E-SRY4064 (Iranian Kurds in Malyarchuk et al., 2013)
5x E1b (Kurdish village Dogukoy*/Central Anatolia in Gokcumen et al., 2011)
12x E1b1 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
1x E1b1b1a1-M78* (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x E1b1b1a1-M78 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012) 
8x E1b1b1b2a1-M34 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
2x E1b1b1b2a1-M34 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x E1b1b1b2a1a-M84 (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim/Turkey)
1x E1b1b1b2a1a-M84 (Kurmanji from paternally Agri, Erzurum, Kars/Turkey)
1x E1b1b1b2a1a-M84 (1/2 Alevi Kurmanji paternally, 1/2 Sunni Kurmanji maternally from Bingol, Kighi, Turkey)
1x E1b1b1b2a1a-M84 (Sorani from Sulaymaniyah/Iraq)
1x E1b1b1a1c-V22 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
3x E1b1b1c-V13 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)


Haplogroup F
2x F-M89 (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
10x F-M89 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
3x F-M89 (Kurmanji from Georgia in Nasidze et al., 2005)
6x F-M89 (Kurds from Turkmenistan in Nasidze et al., 2005; originally used in Wells et al., 2001)

Haplogroup G
2x G1-M285 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x G1-M285 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x G-M201 (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
2x G-M201 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
8x G-M201 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
2x G-M201 (Iranian Kurds in Malyarchuk et al., 2013)
2x G2* (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
3x G2a* (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x G2a (Alevi Kurmanji from Turkey)
1x G2a (Kurd from Turkey)
1x G2a-P15 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)

16x G+I a.k.a. hg2 (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)

Haplogroup H
1x H1-M52  (Kurds from Turkmenistan in Nasidze et al., 2005; originally used in Wells et al., 2001) 
1x H1-M52  (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
1x H1a-M82 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)

Haplogroup I
4x I-M170 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
9x I-M170 (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
14x I-M170 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
1x I-M170 (Iranian Kurds in Malyarchuk et al., 2013)
1x I2-M438 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x I2a2a-M223 (Kurdish village Dogukoy*/Central Anatolia in Gokcumen et al., 2011)
1x I2a2a* (old I2b1*; Z161+, L1228-, L1229-, L1230-, L1226-, L699-, L701-, L702-, L703-, L704-, M379-)(Sorani from Sulaymaniyah/Iraq)
1x I2a2b-L38 (Kurdish village Dogukoy*/Central Anatolia in Gokcumen et al., 2011)

Haplogroup J (J1+J2)
15x J-12f2 (Iranian Kurds in Malyarchuk et al., 2013)

Haplogroup J1
1x J1 a.k.a. hg9 (Eu10) (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)
1x J1 (Kurdish village Dogukoy*/Central Anatolia in Gokcumen et al., 2011)
19x J1-M267 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
1x J1-M267 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x J1-M267* (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
5x J1 (Feyli, originally from Iran)
1x J1 (Z2223+)  (Alevi with Zaza ancestry from Dersim; E11334 (Suleyman Efendi 19th century Askale Erzurum, Turkey))
1x J1 ( L817+ L818+ L816-; Kurd from Turkey; N91920 (Kurdish Serzer, 1805 - 1846, Turkey))
1x J1b2b-P58 (old J1c3; Kurd from Turkey)  
1x J1b2b-P58 (old J1c3; Sorani from Iran)
1x J1b2b-P58 (old J1c3; Kurd from Iraq) 
2x J1b2b-P58 (old J1c3; Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x J1a2b-Page8 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x J1b2b2 (L147.1+, L222.2-, L92-, L93-, M267+; N88767 (Sulaymania, Iraq (Kurdistan) of sharif descent)


Haplogroup J2
20x J2 (Kurdish village Dogukoy*/Central Anatolia in Gokcumen et al., 2011)
27x J2 a.k.a. hg9 (Eu9) (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)
12x J2-M172 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
8x J2-M172 (Kurmanji from Georgia in Nasidze et al., 2005)
3x J2-M172 (Kurds from Turkmenistan in Nasidze et al., 2005; originally used in Wells et al., 2001)     
29x J2-M172 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
1x J2 (Zaza from Dersim/Turkey)
1x J2 (Zaza from Baltas/Varto, Turkey)  
1x J2 (Kurmanji from Dohuk)
1x J2 (Kurmanji from Turkey)
1x J2 (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim/Turkey)
1x J2a*-M410 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x J2a-M410* (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
3x J2a1*-Page55 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
3x J2a1-Page55 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x J2a1a-M47 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x J2a1a-M322 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x J2a1a (J2a4a at ISOGG 2009; he is M47+, M322+)(Yezidi from Iraq)
4x J2a1b*-M67 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x J2a1b*-M67 (Zaza from Turkey)
1x J2a1b1-M92 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
4x J2a1h-M530 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x J2a1h-M530 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)

Haplogroup L
1x L a.k.a. hg28 (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)
1x L-M11* (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
5x L-M20 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
2x L-M20 (Iranian Kurds in Malyarchuk et al., 2013)
1x L1a-M76  (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x L1a-M76 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x L1b-M317 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x L1c-M357 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)

Haplogroup P
1x P-M45 (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
5x P-M45 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
1x P-M45 (Kurmanji from Georgia in Nasidze et al., 2005)

Haplogroup Q
1x Q  (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)

Haplogroup R1
1x R1*-M173 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)

Haplogroup R1a
1x R1a (Kurdish village Dogukoy*/Central Anatolia in Gokcumen et al., 2011)
11x R1a a.k.a. hg3(Eu19) (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)
1x R1a*(L62+, L63+, SRY10831.2-, M17-) (Yezidi Kurd from Georgia)
7x R1a1a-M17 (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
11x R1a1a-M17 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
2x R1a1a-M17 (Kurds from Turkmenistan in Nasidze et al., 2005; originally used in Wells et al., 2001)
12x R1a1a-M17 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
2x R1a1a-M198/M17 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
11x R1a1a-M17 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor) 
1x R1a1a (Z93+, L342+, L657-, Z2122-)(Sorani from Sulaymaniyah/Iraq)
1x R1a1a (Z283+, Z282+, Z284-, M458-, Z280-, subclade 3  only his paternal great-grandfather is Kurdish from Turkey)
1x R1a1a (Alevi Zaza from Dersim/Turkey)
1x R1a1a (Alevi Kurmanji from Dersim/Turkey)
1x R1a1a (Kurmanji from Adıyaman and Gaziantep (now in Konya area)
1x R1a1a (Kurd from Turkey)
1x R1a1a (Sorani from Sulaymaniyah/Iraq)

Haplogroup R1b?
3x R1-M173 (Zaza from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
4x R1-M173 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
5x R1-M173 (Kurds from Turkmenistan in Nasidze et al., 2005; originally used in Wells et al., 2001)

Haplogroup R1b
2x R1b-M343 (Kurdish village Dogukoy*/Central Anatolia in Gokcumen et al., 2011)
1x R1b-M343 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
13x R1b-M343 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
1x R1b1a2*-M269 (Kurmanji from Zakho/Iraq)
2x R1b1a2a-L23/L49 (Zaza from Turkey)
1x R1b1a2a-L23/L49 (Zaza from Lebanon, originally from Dersim)
2x R1b1a2a-L23 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
1x R1b1b2a1a-L52,P311,L11,P310 (Zaza from Sivas, originally from Dersim)
1x R1b1 (P25+)(Kurmanji from Maras/Elbistan/Turkey)

16x R1+R1b+R2 a.k.a. hg1 (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)


Haplogroup R2
1x R2 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
7x R2a-M124 (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
11x R2a-M124 (Kurmanji from Georgia in Nasidze et al., 2005)
2x R2a-M124 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)
1x R2a-M124 (Iranian Kurds in Malyarchuk et al., 2013)
1x R2a (Sorani from Sulaymaniyah/Iraq)
1x R2a (3/4 Zaza from Bingol; 1/4 Kurmanji from Bitlis)

Haplogroup T
11x K-M9 (probably T) (Kurmanji from Turkey in Nasidze et al., 2005)
2x K-M9 (probably T) (Kurmanji from Georgia in Nasidze et al., 2005)
4x T a.k.a. hg26 (Iraqi Kurds in Nebel et al., 2001)
1x T (Sorani from Koysinjaq/Iraq) 
2x T-M184 (Kurdistan-Iran in Cristofaro et al., 2013)
3x T1a-M70 (Iraqi Kurds in Stenersen et al., 2004; based on Athey's Haplogroup predictor)
5x T1a-M70 (Iranian Kurds in Grugni et al., 2012)


More data can be found here:
Kurdish Y-DNA Part I
Kurdish Y-DNA Part II
Kurdish Y-DNA Part III
Kurdish Y-DNA Part IV
Kurdish Y-DNA Part V
Kurdish Y-DNA Part VI
Kurdish Y-DNA Part VII
Kurdish Y-DNA Part IX